Integrating Psychological Perspectives: Joe and Jane both have challenges with alcohol and tobacco. Joe uses snuff and has an alcohol “problem” and Jane smokes cigarettes, especially when she is drinking alcohol. Yet, the path to these behaviors developed for different reasons in each person. Joe grew up in a family with a history of alcohol abuse and where both of his parents smoked cigarettes. Additionally, Joe’s Dad and Grandfather were both alcoholics. Joe witnessed his Dad and his parent’s friends regularly using tobacco products of all types and he noticed that the people using alcohol seemed very happy, so he decided to give it a try. He reasoned that if his parents could drink that heavily, it must be ok. Alternatively, Jane was from a family with no history of alcohol or tobacco use, let alone abuse. Her parents were exceptionally strict and she is not sure why she tried either drinking or smoking. She remembers that she started dating Joe and was convinced to try smoking, even though prior to that point she had never tried any other drugs or alcohol. Eventually, she found that smoking cigarettes was very pleasurable, but for some reason cigarettes were much better than the snuff that Joe used. She also eventually began to drink heavily and she thought an added benefit of drinking was that the alcohol made her forget about the treatment she received from her parents.